Young rats learn to approach an odor that had been experienced in the presence of reinforcing tactile stimulation. Subsequent presentation of the conditioned odor also evokes an enhanced focal uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, and the glomerular-layer width of such foci increases in conditioned pups. In the present study, we determined whether an increase in the glomerular-layer cell population contributes to this structural and functional change. We therefore counted and measured glomerular-layer cells in Nissl-stained sections from focal regions of radiolabeled 2-DG uptake. While cell size did not differ between groups, conditioned pups had a 19% increase in the number of glomerular-layer cells associated with the 2-DG foci compared to controls. The increase in cell number may contribute to the enhanced 2-DG uptake in glomerular-layer foci.