Adipocytokines are adipocyte-secreted hormones associated with some malignancies such as colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. We hypothesized that changes in the levels of adipocytokines may indicate the carcinogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer and adenoma, and investigated the association of the blood levels of several adipocytokines through a case-control study. Blood levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and C-peptide at diagnosis were measured in 115 colorectal cancer patients and 115 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls. The same analysis was performed in 72 colorectal adenoma patients and 72 controls. Logistic regression models were used for estimating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, and one-way anova was performed to determine the prevalence of each variable between two or more groups. Resistin and visfatin levels in cancer patients were significantly higher than those of controls on multivariate analysis (P = 0.03 and P < 0.01, respectively). Stage progression significantly correlated with resistin and visfatin levels (P < 0.01 for both). The adiponectin level in adenoma patients was significantly lower than that of controls on multivariate analysis (P = 0.04). Its level was inversely correlated with the number of adenoma (P = 0.02), but not correlated with the size of adenoma. Resistin and visfatin may be good biomarkers of colorectal malignant potential and stage progression. Adiponectin level may be a good biomarker of colorectal adenoma.