Background and aims: It is not completely understood whether smoking contributes to chronic pancreatitis (CP). Past studies have included mostly patients with alcohol-related and severe CP. Our aim was to assess the relationship of smoking and CP adjusting for alcohol and other clinical risk factors.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed of patients referred to the pancreatic disease clinic in the past 2 years with abdominal pain and suspected CP. Patients were questioned on their smoking and alcohol habits. Patients underwent an etiological workup and diagnostic evaluation for early and late CP comprised of computed tomography scan and combined endoscopic ultrasound and secretin endoscopic pancreatic function test if indicated. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of current smoking with CP adjusting for other risk factors.
Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for current smoking was 1.99 (95% CI 1.01, 3.91). Other significant predictors included consumption of > or =10 alcohol drinks/week, advancing age, history of acute pancreatitis, and the presence of another etiological factor. Smoking was also independently associated with exocrine insufficiency (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.07, 3.75) and calcifications (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.03, 6.94).
Conclusion: Active cigarette smoking is associated with CP adjusting for alcohol and other risk factors. and IAP.