Production of advanced solid dispersions for enhanced bioavailability of itraconazole using KinetiSol Dispersing

Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2010 Sep;36(9):1064-78. doi: 10.3109/03639041003652973.


Objectives: To investigate the ability of KinetiSol Dispersing to prepare amorphous solid dispersions of itraconazole using concentration-enhancing polymers.

Methods: Concentration-enhancing nature of several cellulosic polymers (HPMC, hypromellose acetate succinate) was studied using a modified in vitro dissolution test. Solid dispersions were prepared by KinetiSol Dispersing and characterized for solid-state properties using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Potency and release characteristics were also assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Oral bioavailability of lead formulations was also assessed in animal models.

Results: Screening studies demonstrated superior concentration-enhancing performance from the hypromellose acetate succinate polymer class. Data showed that stabilization was related to molecular weight and the degree of hydrophobic substitution on the polymer such that HF > MF approximately LF, indicating that stabilization was achieved through a combination of steric hindrance and hydrophobic interaction, supplemented by the amphiphilic nature and ionization state of the polymer. Solid dispersions exhibited amorphous solid-state behavior and provided neutral media supersaturation using a surfactant-free pH change method. Rank-order behavior was such that LF > MF > HF. Addition of Carbopol 974P increased acidic media dissolution, while providing a lower magnitude of supersaturation in neutral media because of swelling of the high viscosity gel. In vivo results for both lead compositions displayed erratic absorption was attributed to the variability of gastrointestinal pH in the animals.

Conclusions: These results showed that production of amorphous solid dispersions containing concentration-enhancing polymers through KinetiSol Dispersing can provide improved oral bioavailability; however, additional formulation techniques must be developed to minimize variability associated with natural variations in subject gastrointestinal physiology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Antifungal Agents / analysis
  • Antifungal Agents / chemistry*
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Biological Availability
  • Dosage Forms
  • Drug Compounding
  • Drug Stability
  • Excipients
  • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  • Itraconazole / analysis
  • Itraconazole / chemistry*
  • Itraconazole / pharmacokinetics*
  • Pharmaceutic Aids
  • Polymers / chemistry*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Solubility


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Dosage Forms
  • Excipients
  • Pharmaceutic Aids
  • Polymers
  • Itraconazole