Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease, which is often managed by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). The bone response to ERT is usually slower than visceral and hematological responses. There is uncertainty as to whether an increase in the dosage of ERT has a beneficial effect. The aim of our study was to determine whether or not there is sufficient evidence to make a definitive statement about the effects of ERT and substrate reduction therapy (SRT) on bone marrow infiltration and bone mineral density (BMD) in GD1. We conducted a systematic review of all studies examining the effects of ERT and SRT on bony complications of GD1 published before July 2008. The studies were identified by a computerized search with use of Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCTR), and bibliographies of papers subsequently retrieved from the search. Three hundred studies were grouped according to whether they deal with the natural history of GD1 or therapeutic issues, and 17 studies were included in the review. The results from our systematic review suggest that further investigations, such as better analysis of the Gaucher Registry, are needed on the effects of ERT and SRT on bony complications of GD1. Studies on the effects of the newly identified velaglucerase and the plant-derived glucocerebrosidase on bony complications of GD1 are also needed.