Background and objective: Long-term data on patients with obesity outcome after bariatric surgery are lacking. The goal was to document dietary and anthropometric changes more than 5 years after surgery, as well as patients' eating behavior, psychological state, and quality of life.
Methods: A cohort of 80 women (mean age 40+/-10 years) who underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass between 1997 and 2002 were followed in a Swiss University Hospital for an average of 8+/-1.2 years. The primary outcome was successful weight loss defined as excess weight loss >or=50%. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical analysis, and diet was assessed via a food diary. Eating disorders, psychological factors, and quality of life were evaluated by questionnaires. Patients' perceptions of difficulties and benefits were explored using semistructured interviewing. Results at baseline and last visit were compared using paired t test. Cofactors' means were compared between successful and unsuccessful patients with Student t tests and logistic regression.
Results: Average weight loss 8 years after surgery was 30.7+/-13.8 kg. Excess weight loss >or=50% was observed for 47 patients (59%). Between baseline and last visit, relative proportions of fat mass/total body weight decreased, and fat-free mass/total body weight increased. Mean energy intake was 2,355+/-775 kcal at baseline and 1,680+/-506 kcal at last visit, with 42% of energy from carbohydrates, 39% of energy from fats, and 19% of energy from protein (0.8 g/kg). At last visit, 41 patients (51%) described episodes of binge eating or night eating syndrome. Factors associated with excess weight loss >or=50% were: younger age at operation, greater number of psychological consultations before the operation, and higher scores on ineffectiveness and social insecurity scales at baseline.
Conclusions: More than half of the patients achieved successful weight loss, but disordered eating behavior was frequent. Periodic follow-up screenings and interdisciplinary care are advised. The definition of successful outcome should take into account problematic eating behaviors.
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