Predicting functional significance of cancer-associated p16(INK4a) mutations in CDKN2A

Hum Mutat. 2010 Jun;31(6):692-701. doi: 10.1002/humu.21245.


Inherited mutations affecting the INK4a/ARF locus (CDKN2A) are associated with melanoma susceptibility in 40% of multiple case melanoma families. Over 60 different germline INK4a/ARF mutations have been detected in more than 190 families worldwide. The majority of these alterations are missense mutations affecting p16(INK4a), and only 25% of these have been functionally assessed. There is therefore a need for an accurate and rapid assay to determine the functional significance of p16(INK4a) mutations. We reviewed the performance of several in vivo functional assays that measure critical aspects of p16(INK4a) function, including subcellular location, CDK binding and cell cycle inhibition. In this report the function of 28 p16(INK4a) variants, many associated with melanoma susceptibility were compared. We show that assessment of CDK4 binding and subcellular localization can accurately and rapidly determine the functional significance of melanoma-associated p16(INK4a) mutations. p16(INK4a)-CDK6 binding affinity was unhelpful, as no disease-associated mutation showed reduced CDK6 affinity while maintaining the ability to bind CDK4. Likewise, in silico analyses did not contribute substantially, with only 12 of 25 melanoma-associated missense variants consistently predicted as deleterious. The ability to determine variant functional activity accurately would identify disease-associated mutations and facilitate effective genetic counselling of individuals at high risk of melanoma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Binding, Competitive
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Cycle / genetics*
  • Cell Cycle / physiology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 / genetics
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 / metabolism
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 / genetics
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 / metabolism
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / physiology
  • Cytoplasm / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Melanoma / genetics
  • Melanoma / pathology
  • Mutation*
  • Mutation, Missense
  • Protein Binding
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques


  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6