Superficial candidosis is a common fungal infection that could become a gateway to systemic spread. Candida albicans is the most important Candida spp; recently, so-called emergent species, such as C dubliniensis, C famata, and C lipolytica have been isolated. This chapter describes the clinical manifestations and laboratory diagnostic techniques, including direct examination, smears, cultures, and physiologic tests. Topical antifungal drugs available for the treatment of superficial candidosis, including imidazoles, triazoles, allylamines, and nystatin, are also discussed. For granulomatous and invasive forms of candidosis, triazoles, allylamines (terbinafine), echinocandins (caspofungin), and amphotericin B are elective therapeutic choices. It is important to eliminate associated predisposing factors that contribute to infection and, if possible, all samples obtained should be evaluated for cases of resistance.
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