In view of the essential role of transforming growth factorβ1 (TGFB1) on both inhibiting the development of early benign breast tumors as well as promoting tumor invasion, the association of TGFB1 L10P polymorphism and breast cancer risk has been widely reported, but results of previous studies were somewhat contradictory and underpowered. To overcome the limitations of individual study and to understand the real situation, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis towards the association between TGFB1 L10P polymorphism and breast cancer. Through retrieving MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, a total of 16 studies with 10,392 cases and 11,697 controls were identified. The results showed that significant association was found in the recessive genetic model for Caucasian (OR = 1.152, 95% CI = 1.020-1.301). However, we did not find any associations in additive genetic model (PP vs. LL for total: OR = 1.026, 95% CI = 0.940-1.121), allele contrast (L vs. P for total: OR = 1.004, 95% CI = 0.966-1.044), and dominant genetic model (PP + LP vs. LL for total: OR = 1.001, 95% CI = 0.946-1.061). Conclusively, this meta-analysis strongly suggests that TGFB1 L10P polymorphism may play a low penetrance role in breast cancer susceptibility in Caucasian. Large well-designed epidemiological studies will be necessary to validate the risk identified in the current meta-analysis.