Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) form the major ionic fraction of stool, provide the major metabolic substrate for colonic epithelium, and promote mucosal ion transport. Despite this prominent role of SCFAs in metabolism of the colon, their effect on colonic endocrine cell function has not been studied. Consequently, we hypothesized that SCFAs might modulate release of peptide YY (PYY) from colonic type-L endocrine cells. The specific aims of this study were to measure release of PYY from the isolated perfused rabbit distal colon stimulated by intraluminal infusion of 0.9% saline, acetate (10 mM), acetoacetate (10 mM), n-butyrate (1, 3.3, 10, 100 mM), and pyruvate (10 mM). PYY levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in the venous effluent of the rabbit colon. All four SCFAs (10 mM) caused at least a twofold increase in integrated release of PYY from the isolated perfused rabbit colon. Graded concentrations of n-butyrate caused a stepwise release of PYY. This study suggests that SCFAs may modulate the release of colonic PYY in rabbits.