68Ga-siderophores for PET imaging of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: proof of principle

J Nucl Med. 2010 Apr;51(4):639-45. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.109.072462.


The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is difficult and lacks specificity and sensitivity. In the pathophysiology of Aspergillus fumigatus, iron plays an essential role as a nutrient during infection. A. fumigatus uses a specific and highly efficient iron uptake mechanism based on iron-complexing ferric ion Fe(III) siderophores, which are a requirement for A. fumigatus virulence. We aimed to evaluate the potential of siderophores radiolabeled with (68)Ga, a positron emitter with complexing properties comparable to those of Fe(III), as a radiopharmaceutical for imaging IPA.

Methods: (68)Ga radiolabeling of the A. fumigatus siderophores desferri-triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC) and desferri-ferricrocin (FC) was performed at high specific activity. Stability, protein binding, and log P values were determined. In vitro uptake in A. fumigatus cultures was tested under varying conditions. Biodistribution was studied in healthy noninfected BALB/c mice, and uptake was studied in a model of A. fumigatus infection using immunosuppressed Lewis rats.

Results: High-specific-activity (68)Ga labeling could be achieved, and resulting complexes were stable in serum, toward diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and Fe(III) challenge. Both siderophores showed hydrophilic properties ((68)Ga-TAFC, log P = -2.59; (68)Ga-FC, log P = -3.17) with low values of protein binding for (68)Ga-TAFC (<2%). Uptake of both siderophores was highly dependent on the mycelial iron load and could be blocked with an excess (10 microM) of siderophore or NaN(3), indicating specific, energy-dependent uptake. In noninfected mice, (68)Ga-TAFC showed rapid renal excretion and low blood values (1.6 +/- 0.37 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g] at 30 min); in urine only intact (68)Ga-TAFC was detected. In contrast, (68)Ga-FC revealed high retention in blood (16.1 +/- 1.07 %ID/g at 90 min) and rapid metabolism. In the rat IPA model, lung uptake of (68)Ga-TAFC was dependent on the severity of infection, with less than 0.04 %ID/g in control rats (n = 5) and 0.29 +/- 0.11 %ID/g in mildly infected (n = 3) and 0.95 +/- 0.37 %ID/g in severely infected (n = 4) rats. PET showed focal accumulation in infected lung tissue.

Conclusion: Both siderophores bound (68)Ga with high affinity, and (68)Ga-TAFC, especially, showed high stability. (68)Ga-TAFC displayed highly selective accumulation by A. fumigatus subspecies in vitro and in vivo. The high and specific uptake by A. fumigatus proves the potential of (68)Ga-labeled siderophores for the specific detection of A. fumigatus during infection. They hold promise as new PET agents for IPA.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / chemistry
  • Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / metabolism
  • Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / pharmacokinetics
  • Biological Transport
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Female
  • Gallium Radioisotopes / chemistry
  • Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis / diagnostic imaging*
  • Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis / metabolism
  • Isotope Labeling
  • Mice
  • Positron-Emission Tomography / methods*
  • Rats
  • Siderophores / chemistry*
  • Siderophores / metabolism
  • Siderophores / pharmacokinetics
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides
  • Gallium Radioisotopes
  • Siderophores
  • desferri-ferricrocin