Embryological Background of Truncular Venous Malformation in the Extracranial Venous Pathways as the Cause of Chronic Cerebro Spinal Venous Insufficiency

Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):95-108.


The truncular venous malformation (VM) represents an embryologically defective vein where developmental arrest has occurred during the vascular trunk formation period in the 'later stage' of the embryonic development. A relatively simple truncular VM lesion such as a venous web at the hepatic venous outlet causes portal hypertension giving a profound damage/impact to the liver. A similar condition involving the head and neck venous system may cause chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and may be involved in the development or exacerbation of multiple sclerosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Azygos Vein / abnormalities*
  • Azygos Vein / physiopathology
  • Chronic Disease
  • Collateral Circulation
  • Constriction, Pathologic
  • Humans
  • Jugular Veins / abnormalities*
  • Jugular Veins / physiopathology
  • Multiple Sclerosis / etiology
  • Multiple Sclerosis / pathology
  • Multiple Sclerosis / physiopathology
  • Regional Blood Flow
  • Spinal Cord / blood supply*
  • Syndrome
  • Vascular Malformations / complications*
  • Vascular Malformations / pathology
  • Vascular Malformations / physiopathology
  • Venae Cavae / abnormalities*
  • Venae Cavae / physiopathology
  • Venous Insufficiency / etiology*
  • Venous Insufficiency / pathology
  • Venous Insufficiency / physiopathology