Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the hemodynamics and the morphology of the internal jugular veins using colour-Doppler and B-mode sonongraphy in multiple sclerosis patients (MS) and in controls.
Methods: The internal jugular veins of 25 MS patients and 25 controls were examined using colour Doppler and B-mode ultrasound in sitting and supine positions, recording the changes in hemodynamics and the presence or absence of morphological changes. The presence of at least two of the extracranial Zamboni criteria in the same individual was considered positive for evidence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI).
Results: According to the described criteria, 92% of the MS patients showed abnormal findings and 84% of them showed evidence of CCSVI, however; only 24% of controls showed abnormal findings, but none of them showed evidence of CCSVI (OR=7.25, 95% CI 2.92-18.01, P<0.0001).
Conclusion: Hemodynamic abnormalities and morphological changes involving the internal jugular vein are strongly associated with MS. These findings can be demonstrated by a non-invasive, cost effective Doppler ultrasound criteria.