Purpose: To investigate the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on rat brain of male wistar strain.
Material and methods: Male rats of wistar strain (35 days old with 130 +/- 10 g body weight) were selected for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: Sham exposed and experimental. Animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 days to 2.45 GHz frequency at 0.34 mW/cm(2) power density. The whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.11 W/Kg. Exposure took place in a ventilated Plexiglas cage and kept in anechoic chamber in a far field configuration from the horn antenna. After the completion of exposure period, rats were sacrificed and the whole brain tissue was dissected and used for study of double strand DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) breaks by micro gel electrophoresis and the statistical analysis was carried out using comet assay (IV-2 version software). Thereafter, antioxidant enzymes and histone kinase estimation was also performed.
Results: A significant increase was observed in comet head (P < 0.002), tail length (P < 0.0002) and in tail movement (P < 0.0001) in exposed brain cells. An analysis of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.005), and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.006) showed a decrease while an increase in catalase (P < 0.006) was observed. A significant decrease (P < 0.023) in histone kinase was also recorded in the exposed group as compared to the control (sham-exposed) ones. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) method was adopted for statistical analysis.
Conclusion: The study concludes that the chronic exposure to these radiations may cause significant damage to brain, which may be an indication of possible tumour promotion (Behari and Paulraj 2007).