Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2010 Mar 31;9:35.
doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-9-35.

Protective Effects of Spirulina Maxima on Hyperlipidemia and Oxidative-Stress Induced by Lead Acetate in the Liver and Kidney

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Protective Effects of Spirulina Maxima on Hyperlipidemia and Oxidative-Stress Induced by Lead Acetate in the Liver and Kidney

Johny C Ponce-Canchihuamán et al. Lipids Health Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups).

Results: The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group.

Conclusions: It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Effects of Spirulina maxima on liver oxidative status indicators during lead exposure in rats. The animals were treated with a vehicle or with 75 mg of lead acetate (LA, 25 mg/0.5 ml isotonic saline each, i.p., and three times on days 14, 21 and 28, and sacrificed on day 30). Values are expressed in mean ± SD of n = 6 rats. (A). The total Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity. (B). The Catalase (CAT) activity. (C). The Glutathione (GSH) levels. (D). The Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS) levels. Control (no LA and without Spirulina), LAwS (LA without Spirulina), LAS (LA with Spirulina). *p < 0.05, LAwS group compared with the Control group. ANOVA with Bonferroni test. **p < 0.05, LAwS group compared with the LAS group. ANOVA with Bonferroni test.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Effects of Spirulina maxima on kidney oxidative status indicators during lead exposure in rats. The animals were treated with a vehicle or with 75 mg of lead acetate (LA, 25 mg/0.5 ml isotonic saline each, i.p., and three times on days 14, 21 and 28, and sacrificed on day 30). Values are expressed in mean ± SD of n = 6 rats. (A). The total Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity. (B). The Catalase (CAT) activity. (C). The Glutathione (GSH) levels. (D). The Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS) levels. Control (no LA and without Spirulina), LAwS (LA without Spirulina), LAS (LA with Spirulina). *p < 0.05, LAwS group compared with the Control group. ANOVA with Bonferroni test. **p < 0.05, LAwS group compared with the LAS group. ANOVA with Bonferroni test.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 18 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Annabi Berrahal A, Nehdi A, Hajjaji N, Gharbi N, El-Fazâa S. Antioxidant enzymes activities and bilirubin level in adult rat treated with lead. Comp Ren Biol. 2007;330:581–8. doi: 10.1016/j.crvi.2007.05.007. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Reglero MM, Taggart MA, Monsalve-González L, Mateo R. Heavy metal exposure in large game from a lead mining area: effects on oxidative stress and fatty acid composition in liver. Environ Pollut. 2009;157:1388–95. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2008.11.036. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Shotyk W, Le Roux G. Biogeochemistry and cycling of lead. Met Ions Biol Syst. 2005;43:239–275. - PubMed
    1. Yücebilgiç G, Bilgin R, Tamer L, Tükel S. Effects of lead on Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Ca(+2) ATPase activities and lipid peroxidation in blood of workers. Int J Toxicol. 2003;22:95–97. doi: 10.1080/10915810305096. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Ademuyiwa O, Ugbaja RN, Rotimi SO, Abam E, Okediran BS, Dosumu OA, Onunkwor BO. Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity as a surrogate indicator of lead-induced neurotoxicity in occupational lead exposure in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;24:183–188. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2007.05.002. - DOI - PubMed

Publication types

Feedback