Background/objective: Hypoketotic hypoglycaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia are biochemical hallmarks of glycogen storage disease (GSD) 1. Increased malonyl coenzyme A production which compromises oxidation of long-chain fatty acids via carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1 inhibition plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of these complications. Therapy consists primarily of nutritional support including frequent carbohydrate-rich meals. We studied the effect of a diet enriched in medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on metabolic control/growth in GSD 1 as medium-chain fatty acids can be oxidised independently of CPT 1.
Methods: An adult female, a 1.6-year-old boy with GSD 1a and a 6.5-year-old girl with GSD 1b treated with a classical GSD diet were enrolled; their 'classical GSD diet' was supplemented with MCT fats. Concentrations of glucose, lactate, ketone bodies triglycerides, uric acid, acylcarnitines in blood and organic acids in urine were determined.
Results: No clinical or biochemical side-effects were observed. The MCT diet led to a decrease in uric acid concentrations in all patients. Triglyceride levels were reduced only in the youngest patient, while lactate concentrations did not significantly decrease. The MCT diet allowed for a reduction in carbohydrate and caloric intake required to maintain euglycaemia and led to improvement in growth in the two prepubertal patients.
Conclusions: MCT supplementation had a positive effect on metabolic control and growth in our patients suffering from GSD 1.
(c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.