Low bone mass and osteopenia have been reported in the axial and peripheral skeleton of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Furthermore, several recent studies have shown that gene polymorphisms are related to osteoporosis. However, no study has yet linked polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and bone mass in AIS. Accordingly, the authors examined the association between bone mass and VDR gene polymorphisms in 198 girls diagnosed with AIS. The VDR BsmI (rs1544410), FokI (rs2228670) and Cdx2 (rs11568820) polymorphisms and bone mineral density at the lumbar spine (LSBMD) and femoral neck (FNBMD) were analyzed and compared to their levels in healthy controls. Mean LSBMD and FNBMD in AIS patients were lower than in age- and sex-matched healthy controls (P = 0.0022 and P = 0.0013, respectively). A comparison of genotype frequencies in AIS patients and controls revealed a significant difference for the BsmI polymorphism only (P = 0.0054). Furthermore, a significant association was found between the VDR BsmI polymorphism and LSBMD. In particular, LSBMD in AIS patients with the AA genotype was found to be significantly lower than in patients with the GA (P < 0.05) or GG (P < 0.01) genotypes. However, no significant association was found between LSBMD or FNBMD and the VDR FokI or Cdx2 polymorphisms. These results suggest that the VDR BsmI polymorphism is associated with LSBMD in girls with AIS.