The Kallmann syndrome (KS) combines hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) with anosmia. This is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease. KAL1, encoding the extracellular glycoprotein anosmin-1, is responsible for the X chromosome-linked recessive form of the disease (KAL1). Mutations in FGFR1 or FGF8, encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 and fibroblast growth factor-8, respectively, underlie an autosomal dominant form with incomplete penetrance (KAL2). Mutations in PROKR2 and PROK2, encoding prokineticin receptor-2 and prokineticin-2, have been found in heterozygous, homozygous, and compound heterozygous states. These two genes are likely to be involved both in autosomal recessive monogenic (KAL3) and digenic/oligogenic KS transmission modes. Mutations in any of the above-mentioned KS genes have been found in less than 30% of the KS patients, which indicates that other genes involved in the disease remain to be discovered. Notably, KS may also be part of pleiotropic developmental diseases including CHARGE syndrome; this disease results in most cases from neomutations in CHD7 that encodes a chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein.
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