The eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB regulates a wide range of host genes that control the inflammatory and immune responses, programmed cell death, cell proliferation and differentiation. The activation of NF-kappaB is tightly controlled both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. While the upstream cytoplasmic regulatory events for the activation of NF-kappaB are well studied, much less is known about the nuclear regulation of NF-kappaB. Emerging evidence suggests that NF-kappaB undergoes a variety of posttranslational modifications, and that these modifications play a key role in determining the duration and strength of NF-kappaB nuclear activity as well as its transcriptional output. Here we summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the posttranslational modifications of NF-kappaB, the interplay between the various modifications, and the physiological relevance of these modifications.
Published by Elsevier Inc.