Simultaneous inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 by mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD8055 induces autophagy and cell death in cancer cells

Autophagy. 2010 May;6(4):553-4. doi: 10.4161/auto.6.4.11671. Epub 2010 May 16.

Abstract

mTOR is a major biological switch, coordinating an adequate response to changes in energy uptake (amino acids, glucose), growth signals (hormones, growth factors) and environmental stress. mTOR kinase is highly conserved through evolution from yeast to man and in both cases, controls autophagy and cellular translation in response to nutrient stress. mTOR kinase is the catalytic component of two distinct multiprotein complexes called mTORC1 and mTORC2. In addition to mTOR, mTORC1 contains Raptor, mLST8 and PRAS40. mTORC2 contains mTOR, Rictor, mSIN1 and Protor-1. mTORC1 activates p70S6K, which in turn phosphorylates the ribosomal protein S6 and 4E-BP1, both involved in protein translation. mTORC2 activates AKT directly by phosphorylating Serine 473. pAKT(S473) phosphorylates TSC2 (tuberin) and inactivates it, preventing its association with TSC1 (hamartin) and the inhibition of Rheb, an activator of mTOR. pAKT also phosphorylates PRAS40, releasing it from the mTORC1 complex, increasing its kinase activity. Finally, AKT regulates FOXO3 phosphorylation, sequestering it in the cytosol in an inactive state.

MeSH terms

  • Autophagy / drug effects*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
  • Humans
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2
  • Morpholines / pharmacology*
  • Morpholines / therapeutic use*
  • Multiprotein Complexes / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Neoplasms / enzymology
  • Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism

Substances

  • Morpholines
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • (5-(2,4-bis((3S)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-7-yl)-2-methoxyphenyl)methanol
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2