Sites of ongoing inflammation and triggered immune responses are characterized by significant changes in metabolic activity. Recent studies have indicated that such shifts in tissue metabolism result from a combination of profound recruitment of inflammatory cells (neutrophils and monocytes) and high proliferation rates among lymphocyte populations. The resultant shifts in energy supply and demand can result in metabolic acidosis and diminished delivery and/or availability of oxygen, leading to hypoxia extensive enough to trigger transcriptional and translation changes in tissue phenotype. Such phenotypic shifts can imprint fundamental changes to tissue metabolism. In this study, we review recent work addressing metabolic changes and metabolic control of inflammation and immunity.