Predicting tipranavir and darunavir resistance using genotypic, phenotypic, and virtual phenotypic resistance patterns: an independent cohort analysis of clinical isolates highly resistant to all other protease inhibitors

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Jun;54(6):2473-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00096-10. Epub 2010 Apr 5.


Genotypic interpretation systems (GISs) for darunavir and tipranavir susceptibility are rarely tested by the use of independent data sets. The virtual phenotype (the phenotype determined by Virco [the "Vircotype"]) was used to interpret all genotypes in Québec, Canada, and phenotypes were determined for isolates predicted to be resistant to all protease inhibitors other than darunavir and tipranavir. We used multivariate analyses to predict relative phenotypic susceptibility to darunavir and tipranavir. We compared the performance characteristics of the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida scoring algorithm, the Stanford HIV database scoring algorithm (with separate analyses of the discrete and numerical scores), the Vircotype, and the darunavir and tipranavir manufacturers' scores for prediction of the phenotype. Of the 100 isolates whose phenotypes were determined, 89 and 72 were susceptible to darunavir and tipranavir, respectively. In multivariate analyses, the presence of I84V and V82T and the lack of L10F predicted that the isolates would be more susceptible to darunavir than tipranavir. The presence of I54L, V32I, and I47V predicted that the isolates would be more susceptible to tipranavir. All GISs except the system that provided the Stanford HIV database discrete score performed well in predicting the darunavir resistance phenotype (R(2) = 0.61 to 0.69); the R(2) value for the Stanford HIV database discrete scoring system was 0.38. Other than the system that provided the Vircotype (R(2) = 0.80), all GISs performed poorly in predicting the tipranavir resistance phenotype (R(2) = 0.00 to 0.31). In this independent cohort harboring highly protease inhibitor-resistant HIV isolates, reduced phenotypic susceptibility to darunavir and tipranavir was rare. Generally, GISs predict susceptibility to darunavir substantially better than they predict susceptibility to tipranavir.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Cohort Studies
  • Darunavir
  • Databases, Factual
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral / genetics*
  • Genotype
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV Protease / genetics
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Pyridines / pharmacology*
  • Pyrones / pharmacology*
  • Quebec
  • Sulfonamides / pharmacology*


  • HIV Protease Inhibitors
  • Pyridines
  • Pyrones
  • Sulfonamides
  • HIV Protease
  • Darunavir
  • tipranavir