Both microRNAs (miRNAs) and epigenetic regulation have important functions in stem cell biology, although the interactions between these two pathways are not well understood. Here, we show that MeCP2, a DNA methyl-CpG-binding protein, can epigenetically regulate specific miRNAs in adult neural stem cells (aNSCs). MeCP2-mediated epigenetic regulation of one such miRNA, miR-137, involves coregulation by Sox2, a core transcription factor in stem cells. miR-137 modulates the proliferation and differentiation of aNSCs in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of miR-137 promotes the proliferation of aNSCs, whereas a reduction of miR-137 enhances aNSC differentiation. We further show that miR-137 post-transcriptionally represses the expression of Ezh2, a histone methyltransferase and Polycomb group (PcG) protein. The miR-137-mediated repression of Ezh2 feeds back to chromatin, resulting in a global decrease in histone H3 trimethyl lysine 27. Coexpression of Ezh2 can rescue phenotypes associated with miR-137 overexpression. These results demonstrate that cross talk between miRNA and epigenetic regulation contributes to the modulation of adult neurogenesis.