Acanthopanax koreanum fruit waste inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages

J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010:2010:715739. doi: 10.1155/2010/715739. Epub 2010 Mar 23.

Abstract

The Acanthopanax koreanum fruit is a popular fruit in Jeju Island, but the byproducts of the alcoholic beverage prepared using this fruit are major agricultural wastes. The fermentability of this waste causes many economic and environmental problems. Therefore, we investigated the suitability of using A. koreanum fruit waste (AFW) as a source of antiinflammatory agents. AFWs were extracted with 80% EtOH. The ethanolic extract was then successively partitioned with hexane, CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc, BuOH, and water. The results indicate that the CH(2)Cl(2) fraction (100 microg/mL) of AFW inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in RAW 264.7 cells by 79.6% and 39.7%, respectively. These inhibitory effects of the CH(2)Cl(2) fraction of AFWs were accompanied by decreases in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA in a dose-dependent pattern. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction of AFWs also prevented degradation of IkappaB-alpha in a dose-dependent manner. Ursolic acid was identified as major compound present in AFW, and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore using pure ursolic acid as standard and by HPLC, AFW and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts was found to contain 1.58 mg/g and 1.75 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, we tested the potential application of AFW extracts as a cosmetic material by performing human skin primary irritation tests. In these tests, AFW extracts did not induce any adverse reactions. Based on these results, we suggest that AFW extracts be considered possible anti-inflammatory candidates for topical application.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Chemical Fractionation
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Dinoprostone / biosynthesis*
  • Dinoprostone / genetics
  • Eleutherococcus / chemistry*
  • Ethanol / chemistry
  • Gene Expression / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Humans
  • Industrial Waste
  • Inflammation
  • Lipopolysaccharides / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / drug effects*
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Methylene Chloride / chemistry
  • Mice
  • Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis*
  • Nitric Oxide / genetics
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Solvents / chemistry

Substances

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Industrial Waste
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Solvents
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Ethanol
  • Methylene Chloride
  • Dinoprostone