In Asia, the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection varies markedly in different countries. Higher prevalence rates are found in developing Asian countries while lower rates have been reported in more industrialized and developed countries. Within a country, the seroprevalence rates may vary between distinct geographic regions. H. pylori infection is an important etiological factor for the occurrence of non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma. The incidence rate of gastric adenocarcinoma in Asia tends to mirror the seroprevalence rate of H. pylori infection; however, there are populations with high seroprevalence rates of H. pylori infection that paradoxically have low incidence rates of gastric adenocarcinoma. These diverse clinical outcomes are related to bacterial virulence factors, concomitant environmental factors, host susceptibility and immune response. This review summarizes the current epidemiology of H. pylori infection in Asia and analyzes these data in the context of gastric cancer epidemiology.