Histone deacetylase inhibitors and 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 synergistically induce apoptosis

Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Apr 15;16(8):2320-32. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-2301. Epub 2010 Apr 6.


Purpose: The clinically relevant histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) valproic acid (VPA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid exert variable antitumor activities but increase therapeutic efficacy when combined with other agents. The natural endogenous ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) is a potent antineoplastic agent. Therefore, we investigated whether these HDIs in combination with 15d-PGJ(2) could show synergistic antitumor activity in colon cancer DLD-1 cells.

Experimental design: Cell viability was determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined using flow cytometry analysis. Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis were carried out to investigate the expression of apoptosis-related molecules. Mice bearing DLD-1 xenograft were divided into four groups (n = 5) and injected everyday (i.p.) with diluent, VPA (100 mg/kg), 15d-PGJ(2) (5 mg/kg), or a combination for 25 days.

Results: HDI/15d-PGJ(2) cotreatments synergistically induced cell death through caspase-dependent apoptosis in DLD-1 cells. Moreover, HDIs/15d-PGJ(2) caused histone deacetylase inhibition, leading to subsequent ROS generation and endoplasmic reticulum stress to decrease the expression of antiapoptotic molecules Bcl-X(L) and XIAP and to increase that of proapoptotic molecules CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and death receptor 5. Additionally, VPA/15d-PGJ(2) cotreatment induced ROS-dependent apoptosis in other malignant tumor cells and was more effective than a VPA or 15d-PGJ(2) monotherapy in vivo.

Conclusions: Cotreatments with the clinically relevant HDIs and the endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligand 15d-PGJ(2) are promising for the treatment of a broad spectrum of malignant tumors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Colonic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Drug Synergism
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology*
  • Luciferases / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Nude
  • Prostaglandin D2 / analogs & derivatives*
  • Prostaglandin D2 / pharmacology
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / genetics
  • Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / metabolism
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Transcription Factor CHOP / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Transcription Factor CHOP / genetics
  • Transcription Factor CHOP / metabolism
  • Vorinostat
  • X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein / genetics
  • X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein / metabolism
  • bcl-X Protein / genetics
  • bcl-X Protein / metabolism


  • 15-deoxyprostaglandin J2
  • Bcl2l1 protein, mouse
  • Ddit3 protein, mouse
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • Hydroxamic Acids
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
  • X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein
  • bcl-X Protein
  • Transcription Factor CHOP
  • Vorinostat
  • Luciferases
  • Prostaglandin D2