Purpose: The clinically relevant histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) valproic acid (VPA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid exert variable antitumor activities but increase therapeutic efficacy when combined with other agents. The natural endogenous ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) is a potent antineoplastic agent. Therefore, we investigated whether these HDIs in combination with 15d-PGJ(2) could show synergistic antitumor activity in colon cancer DLD-1 cells.
Experimental design: Cell viability was determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined using flow cytometry analysis. Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis were carried out to investigate the expression of apoptosis-related molecules. Mice bearing DLD-1 xenograft were divided into four groups (n = 5) and injected everyday (i.p.) with diluent, VPA (100 mg/kg), 15d-PGJ(2) (5 mg/kg), or a combination for 25 days.
Results: HDI/15d-PGJ(2) cotreatments synergistically induced cell death through caspase-dependent apoptosis in DLD-1 cells. Moreover, HDIs/15d-PGJ(2) caused histone deacetylase inhibition, leading to subsequent ROS generation and endoplasmic reticulum stress to decrease the expression of antiapoptotic molecules Bcl-X(L) and XIAP and to increase that of proapoptotic molecules CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and death receptor 5. Additionally, VPA/15d-PGJ(2) cotreatment induced ROS-dependent apoptosis in other malignant tumor cells and was more effective than a VPA or 15d-PGJ(2) monotherapy in vivo.
Conclusions: Cotreatments with the clinically relevant HDIs and the endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligand 15d-PGJ(2) are promising for the treatment of a broad spectrum of malignant tumors.