As part of a larger prospective study of the influence of environmental factors on pregnancy, birth and the fetus, chromosome examinations have been made in 34910 newborn children in Arhus over a 13-year period. Klinefelter's syndrome was found in 1 per 576 boys, XYY in 1 per 851 boys, triple-X in 1 per 947 girls and Turner's syndrome in 1 per 1893 girls. Other sex chromosome aberrations were found in 1 per 11,637 children. The total incidence of sex chromosome abnormalities was 1 per 426 children or 2.34 per 1000. The most frequent autosomal abnormalities were that of Down's syndrome with 1 per 592 children, and reciprocal translocations with 1 per 712 children. The total incidence of autosomal abnormalities was 1 per 164 children. Chromosome abnormalities were found in 276 liveborn children and in 19 fetuses, who were aborted after prenatal chromosome examination. The combined incidence of sex chromosomal and autosomal abnormalities was 1 per 118 children or 8.45 per 1000 children.