Cognitive functioning in patients with affective disorders and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis

Int Rev Psychiatry. 2009;21(4):336-56. doi: 10.1080/09540260902962149.


There is considerable evidence for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and affective disorders, but the pattern of potential similarities or differences between diagnostic groups remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to conduct a quantitative review of studies on cognitive performance in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Relevant articles were identified through literature search in major databases for the period between January 1980 and December 2005. Meta-analytic treatment of the original studies revealed widespread cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders in intellectual ability and speed of information processing, in encoding and retrieval, rule discovery and in response generation and response inhibition. Differences between diagnostic groups were quantitative rather than qualitative.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Attention
  • Bipolar Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Bipolar Disorder / psychology*
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Cognition Disorders / psychology*
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / diagnosis*
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / psychology
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inhibition, Psychological
  • Intelligence
  • Male
  • Memory, Short-Term
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Problem Solving / physiology
  • Psychomotor Performance
  • Reaction Time
  • Retention, Psychology
  • Schizophrenia / diagnosis*
  • Schizophrenic Psychology*
  • Young Adult