Three Legionella-like organisms were isolated from water from the cooling towers of two Australian institutions. The strains grew on buffered charcoal-yeast extract (BCYE) agar but not on BCYE agar in the absence of L-cysteine. Gas-liquid chromatography profiles of the isolates were consistent with those for Legionella spp. They were serologically distinct from other legionellae in a slide agglutination test. DNA hybridization studies showed that the three isolates belong to a new species of Legionella, Legionella fairfieldensis (ATCC 49588).