Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common risk factor for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Western populations; however, no prospective studies have examined MetS as a risk factor for CKD in Chinese adults.
Methods: The incidence of CKD and the prospective link between MetS (defined by two criteria: modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF)) and CKD among 118,924 Taiwanese participants without baseline diabetes, aged 20-74 years with a mean 3.7 years follow up, was examined. CKD was measured by using estimated glomerular filtration rate or dipstick proteinuria (1+). The association between MetS or combination patterns of MetS abnormalities and CKD was evaluated using Cox models with adjustment for confounders.
Results: The incidence of CKD was 288/10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI), 283-293). The findings showed that central obesity (OB), high blood pressure (BP) and high triglyceride were considered to be the major metabolic events in the study cohort. Incidences and hazard ratios (HR) on CKD had evidently increasing trends with the number of MetS components. The multivariable-adjusted HR for CKD associated with ATP-III-MetS was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.24-1.36). Equivalent HR for IDF-MetS were 1.37 (95% CI, 1.30-1.44). The associations were still observed when analyzing by stratifying incident diabetes and adjusting hypertension status.
Conclusion: MetS induces an increased risk for CKD independent of baseline confounding factors and subsequent incident diabetes modified the associations lightly. The mechanism through which MetS may cause CKD in this population likely is the development of multiple metabolic pathogenic processes together.