Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a pathogen which causes a debilitating chronic enteritis in ruminants. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that control M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis persistence during infection are poorly understood and the key steps for developing Johne's disease remain elusive. A proteomic analysis approach, based on one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by LC-MS/MS, was used to identify and characterize the cell wall associated proteins of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K10 and an cell surface enzymatic shaving method was used to determine the surface-exposed proteins. 309 different proteins were identified, which included 101 proteins previously annotated as hypothetical or conserved hypothetical. 38 proteins were identified as surface-exposed by trypsin treatment. To categorize and analyze these proteomic data on the proteins identified within cell wall of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K10, a rational bioinformatic approach was followed. The analyses of the 309 cell wall proteins provided theoretical molecular mass and pI distributions and determined that 18 proteins are shared with the cell surface-exposed proteome. In short, a comprehensive profile of the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K10 cell wall subproteome was created. The resulting proteomic profile might become the foundation for the design of new preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against mycobacterial diseases in general and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in particular.