Recidivism is common in patients infected with gonorrhoea. Identifying the factors most closely associated with recurrent gonococcal infection can help to target health promotion and disease prevention interventions. A case-control study design was used to quantify the importance of past infection as a risk marker for gonorrhoea while controlling for other demographic and behavioural factors. Data were available for 134 cases of gonorrhoea and 150 controls. A history of gonorrhoea (odds ratio [OR] 4.36 [95% CI 1.78-10.71]) was the strongest predictor of current infection. The number of partners in the last month (OR 2.19 [95% CI 1.20-4.02]) was also significantly associated with a diagnosis of gonorrhoea. Patients presenting with gonorrhoea are a specific high-risk group who require additional interventions and should be prioritized for evidence-based, enhanced and interactive counselling.