Molecular knowledge about schizophrenia--a psychotic, multifactorial mental disorder that affects about 1% of the population worldwide--is limited and no diagnostic biomarkers are available. The comparative proteome analysis of human brain tissue from patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls may supply useful information on both the disorder and potential biomarkers candidates. Here, we present the results of our investigation of anterior cingulate cortex samples from 11 patients and 8 controls. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry, the most traditional approach to studying the proteome, to reveal the differentially expressed proteins in schizophrenia, and western blot to validate some interesting potential biomarker candidates such as dihydropyrimidinase-like 2 and alpha-crystallin, involved in a number of processes such as cytoskeleton arrangement. Most interesting is that our additional sex-specific proteome comparison showed that male and female schizophrenia patients present different patterns of proteome regulation, for instance for the proteins aldolase C, an enzyme of glycolysis, and glutamine synthetase that synthesizes glutamine, responsible for maintain glutamate levels. Our findings not only support previous findings but also indicate areas that warrant further study in schizophrenia.
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