Antimicrobial use in Swiss dairy farms: quantification and evaluation of data quality

Prev Vet Med. 2010 Jun 1;95(1-2):50-63. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2010.03.004. Epub 2010 Apr 8.


Data on antimicrobial use play a key role in the development of policies for the containment of antimicrobial resistance. On-farm data could provide a detailed overview of the antimicrobial use, but technical and methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation, as well as data quality need to be further assessed. The aims of this study were (1) to quantify antimicrobial use in the study population using different units of measurement and contrast the results obtained, (2) to evaluate data quality of farm records on antimicrobial use, and (3) to compare data quality of different recording systems. During 1 year, data on antimicrobial use were collected from 97 dairy farms. Antimicrobial consumption was quantified using: (1) the incidence density of antimicrobial treatments; (2) the weight of active substance; (3) the used daily dose and (4) the used course dose for antimicrobials for intestinal, intrauterine and systemic use; and (5) the used unit dose, for antimicrobials for intramammary use. Data quality was evaluated by describing completeness and accuracy of the recorded information, and by comparing farmers' and veterinarians' records. Relative consumption of antimicrobials depended on the unit of measurement: used doses reflected the treatment intensity better than weight of active substance. The use of antimicrobials classified as high priority was low, although under- and overdosing were frequently observed. Electronic recording systems allowed better traceability of the animals treated. Recording drug name or dosage often resulted in incomplete or inaccurate information. Veterinarians tended to record more drugs than farmers. The integration of veterinarian and farm data would improve data quality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Cattle Diseases / microbiology
  • Cattle Diseases / prevention & control
  • Dairying / methods
  • Dairying / statistics & numerical data*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Quality Control
  • Records / standards
  • Records / statistics & numerical data
  • Records / veterinary*
  • Switzerland


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents