Gene expression is a multi-step process starting from transcribing DNA through to the eventual production of proteins or RNA products. It is important that this process is controlled coordinately to ensure that all steps function in a concerted manner. Signal transduction pathways orchestrate such control and bring about wholesale changes in the gene expression profiles of cells that ultimately determine their phenotype. Recent studies on the MAP kinase and mTOR signaling pathways in mammalian cells have illustrated how integrated responses to signaling pathways are achieved. This occurs at both the transcriptional level, through the coordinate regulation of RNA polymerases I-III and downstream in the coordinate regulation of transcription with RNA processing and translation.
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