White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a forage legume of considerable economic importance in temperate agricultural systems. It has a strong self-incompatibility system. The molecular basis of self-incompatibility in T. repens is unknown, but it is under the control of a single locus, which is expressed gametophytically. To locate the self-incompatibility locus (S locus) in T. repens, we carried out cross-pollination experiments in an F(1) mapping population and constructed a genetic linkage map using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers. As the first step in a map-based cloning strategy, we locate for the first time the S locus in T. repens on a genetic linkage map, on the homoeologous linkage group pair 1 (E), which is broadly syntenic to Medicago truncatula L. chromosome 1. On the basis of this syntenic relationship, the possibility that the S locus may or may not possess an S-RNase gene is discussed.