Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) have been described in many autoimmune diseases in which there is an increased intestinal permeability. Also in type 1 diabetes (T1D), there is an increased intestinal permeability. Since no data are available about ASCA in T1D, we evaluated, retrospectively, the frequency of ASCA in this disease. ASCA, IgG, and IgA, were determined by ELISA in sera of 224 T1D patients in which coeliac disease has been excluded and 157 healthy control group. The frequency of ASCA (IgG or IgA) was significantly higher in T1D patients than in the control group (24.5% vs. 2.5%, p < 10(-7)). The same observation was found in children and in adult patients when we compare them to healthy children and blood donors group respectively. Compared to children, adult patients with T1D showed significantly higher frequencies of ASCA of any isotype (38% vs. 13.7%, p < 10(-4)), both ASCA IgG and IgA (12% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.002), ASCA IgG (35% vs. 9.8%, p < 10(-5)) and ASCA IgA (15% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.001). The frequency of ASCA was statistically higher in females of all T1D than in males (30.8% vs.17.7%, p = 0.03), in girls than in boys (22% vs.6.2%, p = 0.017), and significantly higher in men than in boys (35.7% vs. 6.2%, p < 10(-4)). The frequency of ASCA IgG was significantly higher than that of ASCA IgA in all T1D patients (21% vs. 9.8%, p < 0.002), in all females (26.5% vs. 10.2%, p < 0.002), in women (37.9% vs. 12%, p < 0.001). The frequency of ASCA was significantly higher in all long-term T1D than in an inaugural T1D (29% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.019). The same observation was found in adults (45.8% vs. 17.8%, p = 0.01). In long-term T1D patients, ASCA were significantly more frequent in adults than children (45.8% vs. 14.5%, p < 10(-4)). The frequency of ASCA IgG was significantly higher in long-term T1D than in an inaugural T1D (25.2% vs. 11.6%, p = 0.03). Patients with T1D had a high frequency of ASCA.