Objective: Low-dose aspirin may reduce the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through its effect on cyclooxygenase activity and its antioxidant pathways. Previous randomized trial data have demonstrated a beneficial effect of low-dose aspirin in reducing other inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and colorectal adenomas, but no trial has evaluated the role of aspirin in RA prevention.
Methods: The Women's Health Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between 1992 and 2004 designed to evaluate the risks and benefits of low-dose aspirin (100 mg every other day) and vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer among 39,876 female health care professionals age > or =45 years throughout the US. After excluding women with RA at baseline, 39,144 women were evaluated for the present study. A definite diagnosis of RA was assessed during followup by self-report and confirmed using a connective tissue disease screening questionnaire, followed by a medical record review by a rheumatologist for American College of Rheumatology criteria.
Results: During an average followup of 10 years, 106 women developed definite RA (48 women in the aspirin group and 58 in the placebo group). There was a nonsignificant risk for RA (relative risk [RR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.56-1.21; P = 0.33) associated with aspirin. There were 64 seropositive RA cases (60%) and 42 seronegative RA cases (40%). Aspirin also had no significant effect on either seropositive RA (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.61-1.63) or seronegative RA (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.33-1.15).
Conclusion: One hundred milligrams of aspirin taken every other day was not associated with a significant reduction in the risk of developing RA among women in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.