Predicted 25-hydroxyvitamin D score and incident type 2 diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study

Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun;91(6):1627-33. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28441. Epub 2010 Apr 14.


Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Objective: Our objective was to examine the relation between vitamin D status and incidence of T2D.

Design: We used a subsample of 1972 Framingham Offspring Study participants to develop a regression model to predict plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations from age, sex, body mass index, month of blood sampling, total vitamin D intake, smoking status, and total energy intake. Using this model, we calculated the predicted 25(OH)D score for each nondiabetic participant at the cohort's fifth examination to assess the association between the predicted 25(OH)D score and incidence of T2D by using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: A total of 133 T2D cases were identified over a 7-y average follow-up. In comparison with individuals in the lowest tertile of the predicted 25(OH)D score at baseline, those in the highest tertile had a 40% lower incidence of T2D after adjustment for age, sex, waist circumference, parental history of T2D, hypertension, low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, impaired fasting glucose, and Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index score (hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.97; P for trend = 0.03).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that higher vitamin D status is associated with decreased risk of T2D. Maintaining optimal 25(OH)D status may be a strategy to prevent the development of T2D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology
  • Female
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological*
  • Models, Statistical*
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood


  • Blood Glucose
  • Triglycerides
  • Vitamin D
  • Cholesterol
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D