Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) is a spherical plant virus that has a single 6.3 kb positive strand RNA. The genomic RNA has a tRNA-like structure (TLS) at the 3'-end. The 3'-TLS and hairpins in the 5'-untranslated region supposedly serve as packaging signals; however, recent studies have shown that they do not play a role in TYMV RNA packaging. In this study, we focused on packaging signals by examining a series of deletion mutants of TYMV. Analysis of encapsidated viral RNA after agroinfiltration of the deletion constructs into Nicotiana benthamiana showed that the mutant RNA lacking the protease (Pro)/helicase (Hel) region was not encapsidated by the coat proteins provided in trans, implicating that a packaging signal lies in the Pro/Hel region. Examination of two Pro(-)Hel(-) mutants showed that protein activity from the Pro/Hel domains was dispensable for the packaging of the non-replicating TYMV RNA. In contrast, the mutant TYMV RNA lacking the Pro/Hel region was efficiently encapsidated when the mutant TYMV was co-introduced with a wild-type TYMV, suggesting that packaging mechanisms might differ depending on whether the virus is replicating or not.