Of the 33.2 million persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), one-third are estimated to also be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2008, there were an estimated 1.4 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) among persons with HIV infection, and TB accounted for 26% of AIDS-related deaths. The relative risk of TB among HIV-infected persons, compared with that among HIV-uninfected persons, ranges from 20- and 37-fold, depending on the state of the HIV epidemic. In 2008, 1.4 million patients with TB were tested globally for HIV, and 81 countries tested more than half of their patients with TB for HIV. Only 4% of all persons infected with HIV were screened for TB in the same year. Decentralization of HIV treatment services and strengthening of its integration with TB services are essential. Use of the highly decentralized TB services as an entry point to rapidly expand access to antiretroviral therapy and methods for prevention of HIV infection must be pursued aggressively.