Despite mandatory fortification of staple foods, vitamin D intakes of Canadian children and adults are inadequate

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul;121(1-2):301-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.079. Epub 2010 Apr 21.


Vitamin D is largely obtained through sun-induced skin synthesis and less from dietary sources, but during Canadian winters, skin synthesis is non-existent. The objective of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes in Canadians from food sources. Data used in this study included food intakes of Canadians reported in the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (CCHS 2.2), a nationally representative sample of 34,789 persons over the age of 1 year. The mean+/-SD dietary intake of vitamin D from food of Canadians was 5.8+/-0.1 microg/day, with males 9-18 years having the highest mean intakes (7.5+/-0.2 microg/day) and females 51-70 years having the lowest intakes (5.2+/-0.3 microg/day). Males in all age groups had higher intakes than females and White Canadians had higher vitamin D intakes than Non-Whites in most age sex groups. Milk products contributed 49% of dietary vitamin D followed by meat and meat-alternatives (31.1%). The majority of Canadians consume less than current recommended intake of vitamin D from food. Consideration should be given to strategies to improve vitamin D intake of Canadians by increasing both the amount of vitamin D added to foods and range of foods eligible for fortification.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Canada
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diet Surveys
  • Female
  • Food, Fortified*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Vitamin D / metabolism*


  • Vitamin D