Cyclin E-Cdk2 is known to regulate both DNA replication and centrosome duplication during the G1-S transition in the cell cycle, and disruption of centrosomes results in a G1 arrest in some cell types. Localization of cyclin E on centrosomes is mediated by a 20 amino acid domain termed the centrosomal localization sequence (CLS), and expression of the GFP-tagged CLS displaces both cyclin E and cyclin A from the centrosome. In asynchronous cells, CLS expression inhibits the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into DNA, an effect proposed to reflect a G1 arrest. Here we show in synchronized cells that the reduction in BrdU incorporation reflects not a G1 arrest but rather direct inhibition of the initiation of DNA replication in S phase. The loading of essential DNA replication factors such as Cdc45 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen onto chromatin is blocked by CLS expression, but DNA synthesis can be rescued by retargeting active cyclin E-Cdk2 to the centrosome. These results suggest that initial steps of DNA replication require centrosomally localized Cdk activity and link the nuclear cycle with the centrosome cycle at the G1-S transition.
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