Cold-induced sweating syndrome (CISS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is genetically heterogeneous. Deficiency of the CRLF1 and the CLCF1 gene functions results in CISS1 and CISS2, respectively. So far, only a single patient with CISS2 has been reported. Here we describe four new cases of CISS, two additional patients with CISS2 (confirming locus heterogeneity) and two patients with CISS1. Their case histories are given in detail to emphasize the striking similarity of their presentation, which makes a clinical differentiation impossible. All four cases had a uniform presentation in the neonatal period, much like Crisponi syndrome - inability to suckle and swallow due to facial and bulbar weakness; excessive startle and trismus-like facial contractions when crying or being handled; apnoeic spells; episodic unexplained fevers (up to 41 degrees C) and associated seizures or even sudden death; erythematous skin rashes; and camptodactyly. Thus it is evident that Crisponi syndrome is the pediatric manifestation of both CISS1 and CISS2. Signs abate during infancy and most children have a normal psychomotor development. During the first decade all children develop scoliosis and abnormal sweating which is the most disabling symptom in adulthood. We report that cold-induced sweating can be effectively treated. Detailed clinical observations, correlated with the findings from basic science research, may serve to elucidate the role(s) of this important cytokine complex in embryonic and postnatal development.
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