Background: Malnutrition is a common complication in haemodialysis patients. Recently, the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) has been reported as a simple and accurate tool to assess nutritional status of haemodialysis patients. Our objective was to examine the association between GNRI and mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients.
Methods: We examined the GNRI of 490 maintenance haemodialysis patients (60 ± 12 years, 293 males and 197 females) and followed up these patients for 60 months. Predictors for all-cause death were examined using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional analyses.
Results: The GNRI was 98.0 ± 6.0, and was significantly and negatively correlated with age and haemodialysis duration. During the 60-month follow-up period, 129 patients died. According to the highest positive likelihood and risk ratios, the cutoff value of GNRI for mortality was set at 90. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with a GNRI <90 (n = 50) had a significantly lower survival rate, compared to those with GNRI ≥90 (n = 440) (log-rank test, P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses demonstrated that GNRI was a significant predictor for mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.962, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.931-0.995, P < 0.05], after adjustment for age, gender, C-reactive protein, presence of diabetes and haemodialysis duration.
Conclusions: These results demonstrated that GNRI is a significant predictor for mortality in haemodialysis patients. The simple method of GNRI is considered to be a clinically useful marker for the assessment of nutritional status in haemodialysis patients.