RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play key roles in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. RBPs control various posttranscriptional events, including splicing, polyadenylation, mRNA stability, transport, and translation. It is becoming apparent that RBPs play a significant role in pathophysiologic conditions such as inflammation and cancer. More importantly, we and others have begun dissecting the role of mRNA stability and translation in regulating gene expression, dysregulation of which has serious consequences for the fate of the cell. In this article, we discuss this emerging area of posttranscriptional gene regulation and the role of RBPs in the aberrant expression of proteins in tumorigenesis.