Spermatogenesis in mammals is achieved by multiple players that pursue a common goal of generating mature spermatozoa. The developmental processes acting on male germ cells that culminate in the production of the functional spermatozoa are regulated at both the transcription and post-transcriptional levels. This review addresses recent progress towards understanding such regulatory mechanisms and identifies future challenges to be addressed in this field. We focus on transcription factors, chromatin-associated factors and RNA-binding proteins necessary for spermatogenesis and/or sperm maturation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern spermatogenesis has enormous implications for new contraceptive approaches and treatments for infertility.