Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder that affects more than a million people world-wide. The aetiology of MS is not known and there is no medical treatment available that can cure MS. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease model of MS. The pathogenesis of EAE/MS is a complex process involving activation of immune cells, secretion of inflammatory cytokines and destruction of myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptor transcription factors that regulate cell growth, differentiation and homeostasis. PPAR agonists have been used in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, cancer and inflammation. We and others have shown that PPARgamma, alpha and delta agonists inhibit CNS inflammation and demyelination in the EAE model of MS. In this study we show that the PPARdelta agonists GW501516 and L165041 ameliorate MOGp35-55-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice by blocking interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-17 production by T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells. The inhibition of EAE by PPARdelta agonists was also associated with a decrease in IL-12 and IL-23 and an increase in IL-4 and IL-10 expression in the CNS and lymphoid organs. These findings indicate that PPARdelta agonists modulate Th1 and Th17 responses in EAE and suggest their use in the treatment of MS and other autoimmune diseases.