Purpose: The Microarray Innovations in Leukemia study assessed the clinical utility of gene expression profiling as a single test to subtype leukemias into conventional categories of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies.
Methods: The investigation was performed in 11 laboratories across three continents and included 3,334 patients. An exploratory retrospective stage I study was designed for biomarker discovery and generated whole-genome expression profiles from 2,143 patients with leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. The gene expression profiling-based diagnostic accuracy was further validated in a prospective second study stage of an independent cohort of 1,191 patients.
Results: On the basis of 2,096 samples, the stage I study achieved 92.2% classification accuracy for all 18 distinct classes investigated (median specificity of 99.7%). In a second cohort of 1,152 prospectively collected patients, a classification scheme reached 95.6% median sensitivity and 99.8% median specificity for 14 standard subtypes of acute leukemia (eight acute lymphoblastic leukemia and six acute myeloid leukemia classes, n = 693). In 29 (57%) of 51 discrepant cases, the microarray results had outperformed routine diagnostic methods.
Conclusion: Gene expression profiling is a robust technology for the diagnosis of hematologic malignancies with high accuracy. It may complement current diagnostic algorithms and could offer a reliable platform for patients who lack access to today's state-of-the-art diagnostic work-up. Our comprehensive gene expression data set will be submitted to the public domain to foster research focusing on the molecular understanding of leukemias.