Background: Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is characterized by calcium deposits within the seminiferous tubules and is associated with benign and malign conditions.
Aim: To determine TM prevalence in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and its association with testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART).
Patients and methods: Scrotal ultrasound using a high-frequency linear transducer (12 MHz) was performed in 41 patients aged 12.1 +/- 4.7 (range 3.5-23.3) years and 49 healthy similarly aged controls. TM was classified with respect to the number of microliths per ultrasound field as limited (LTM, <5 microliths) and classic (CTM, > or = 5 microliths). CTM was graded as grade 1 (5-10 microliths), grade 2 (11-20 microliths), and grade 3 (>20 microliths).
Results: TM was detected bilaterally in 9 (21.9%) patients and 2 (4.1%) control cases (1 bilateral, 1 unilateral). Four patients had LTM, one evaluated as grade 1, one as grade 2, and three as grade 3. There were 9 patients with TART. Four patients had TM and TART concomitantly.
Conclusion: Because TM is frequently found in patients with CAH and may also exist concomitantly with TART, we recommend that these patients be followed annually by testicular ultrasound.
Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.